Yanis Varoufakis: Technofeudalism – American Big Tech Has Enslaved Us

Varoufakis warns the digital age brings new inequality, not the hoped-for utopia, echoing feudal disparities with a digital twist.

In his book, ‘Technofeudalism: What Killed Capitalism’, Yanis Varoufakis explores how giant tech firms, both in the US and China are expanding their control over the planet. His analysis is that, whilst material resources certainly matter, the real battle ground is over digital real estate.

Varoufakis, a renowned economist and political thinker, presents a future where the digital age has not ushered in the equitable, socialist utopia many had hoped for but has instead birthed a new form of inequality and economic disparity reminiscent of feudal times, yet distinctly marked by digital characteristics.

The foundation of Varoufakis’s argument rests on the observation that the digital giants—companies like Google, Uber, Facebook, Apple, and Amazon—have amassed unprecedented power and wealth, not merely through traditional capitalist means but by establishing monopolies over digital platforms and resources. These companies, according to Varoufakis, are the new lords of a techno-feudal system, where the “cloud” serves as their domain from which they extract rent, much like feudal lords extracted rent from land.

This techno-feudalism is characterized by the concentration of capital and power in the hands of a few, a phenomenon that, while not entirely new, has reached new heights in the digital age. The traditional capitalist notion of competition and market dynamics has given way to a system where access to digital platforms is controlled by these giants, effectively stifling competition and innovation from smaller entities. Europe’s lag in developing its own digital giants exacerbates this issue, making it dependent on American and Chinese tech monopolies.

Varoufakis further argues that this concentration of power and capital has significant implications for taxation and the distribution of wealth. Amazon’s operations in Europe, where it generates billions in revenue while paying minimal taxes, exemplify the skewed financial benefits that favor these digital overlords. This, he posits, is not merely a failure of capitalism but a transformation into something more sinister that mirrors feudalism, where societal wealth is siphoned to the top, leaving the masses with fewer economic opportunities and benefits.

The shift to techno-feudalism, as Varoufakis describes, is also marked by a mutation within capitalism itself. Capitalism, in its quest for growth and dominance, has birthed a form of capital—cloud capital—that has ultimately turned on its creator. This cloud capital, controlled by the tech giants, has the power to extract rents and surpluses from both the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, redefining the economic landscape and power dynamics.

Varoufakis’s insights into the role of digital currencies and payment systems further highlight the transformation underway. The development of digital currencies by China, contrasted with Europe’s lack of similar innovation, underscores the shifting balance of economic power and the emergence of new centers of economic control and influence.

In discussing the geopolitical implications of this shift, Varoufakis points to the rising tensions between the United States and China. The competition is not merely economic but also technological, with both nations vying for dominance in the digital realm. This rivalry, he fears, could lead to conflict, emphasizing the importance of understanding techno-feudalism not just as an economic phenomenon but as a factor reshaping global politics and power structures.

Furthermore, Varoufakis critiques the liberal notion of the individual, arguing that the pervasive influence of big tech on our lives has eroded the autonomy and privacy that are central to liberal democracy. The data collected by these tech giants on individuals’ preferences, behaviors, and interactions not only fuels their economic dominance but also challenges the very notion of individual freedom and autonomy.

In conclusion, Varoufakis’s discussion of techno-feudalism presents a compelling and concerning vision of the future, where the digital revolution has not liberated humanity but has instead entrenched new forms of inequality and control. The rise of digital giants as the new feudal lords of the 21st century, wielding power over digital realms and extracting economic rents from society, signals a profound shift in the economic and social order. This transition challenges us to rethink our understanding of capitalism, democracy, and freedom in the digital age, urging a reevaluation of the systems and structures that govern our lives.

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How big tech has enslaved us according to Yanis Varoufakis?

Yanis Varoufakis articulates a compelling argument on how big tech has, in essence, enslaved contemporary society, drawing on the concept of techno-feudalism to describe this phenomenon. According to Varoufakis, the evolution of capitalism into this new phase is characterized by several key dynamics:

1. Monopolization of the Digital Space: Big tech companies like Amazon, Google, Facebook (now Meta), and Apple have established dominant positions in the digital economy, effectively monopolizing vast swathes of the internet. This dominance allows them to control access to markets, information, and communication platforms, exerting unprecedented power over both consumers and producers.

2. Extraction of Digital Rents: Varoufakis argues that these tech giants extract enormous rents from the economy without the traditional exchange of goods and services. By controlling the digital infrastructure — the “cloud” — these companies can impose fees and conditions that extract wealth from both individuals and businesses, funneling profits to an elite few while contributing minimally to public coffers through tax avoidance strategies.

3. Surveillance and Data Exploitation: The enslavement also extends to the pervasive surveillance and data mining practices of big tech companies. By harvesting vast amounts of personal data, these entities not only invade privacy but also manipulate consumer behavior and preferences, locking individuals into a cycle of consumption and influence that diminishes autonomy and personal freedom.

4. Erosion of Liberal Individualism: Varoufakis highlights how the techno-feudal system undermines the concept of the liberal individual — a cornerstone of democratic society. The constant monitoring and data collection by big tech companies compromise the autonomy and self-determination of individuals, reshaping identities and behaviors through algorithmic manipulation.

5. Perpetuation of Inequality: The techno-feudal model exacerbates inequality by concentrating wealth and power in the hands of the tech oligarchs while the majority of society sees diminishing economic prospects and eroding rights. This concentration of power mirrors feudal structures, where lords wielded control over land and serfs, but in the modern context, it’s digital territory and data.

6. Dependency and Powerlessness: Society’s increasing dependency on digital platforms for economic, social, and political engagement has rendered individuals and smaller entities powerless against the might of big tech. This dependency is likened to feudal vassalage, where serfs had no choice but to submit to the lords’ authority.

7. Geopolitical Implications: Varoufakis also delves into the geopolitical ramifications of big tech’s rise, particularly the tension between the U.S. and China, as both nations vie for technological and economic supremacy. This rivalry underscores the global impact of techno-feudalism, with Europe lagging behind and losing relevance in the new digital order.

In summary, Yanis Varoufakis paints a stark picture of a society ensnared by the technological and economic might of big tech companies. This enslavement, according to his analysis, is not just a matter of economic dominance but extends to the very fabric of individual freedom, societal structure, and global power dynamics, signaling a profound shift from traditional capitalist models to a new era of techno-feudalism.

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Jeff Bezos and Amazon

Yanis Varoufakis discusses Jeff Bezos within the broader narrative of techno-feudalism, highlighting how Bezos, through Amazon, exemplifies the shift from traditional capitalist practices to a new era where digital platforms and cloud capital dominate. Bezos is portrayed as a modern feudal lord of the digital age, where his control over Amazon’s vast online marketplace and cloud services positions him at the forefront of this economic transformation.

Varoufakis points out that Amazon, under Bezos’s leadership, has become more than just an online retailer; it is a massive platform that controls significant portions of the digital economy, from e-commerce to cloud computing services. This control allows Amazon to extract rents from other businesses that rely on its platform to reach consumers, a practice reminiscent of feudal lords extracting rent from their lands. The comparison to feudalism is used to illustrate the power dynamics in the digital economy, where platform owners like Bezos wield immense power over the market, shaping economic activities and influencing the distribution of wealth.

Furthermore, Varoufakis criticizes the tax practices associated with companies like Amazon. He highlights how Amazon generates billions in revenue, particularly in Europe, without contributing a proportionate amount in taxes. This situation exacerbates economic inequalities and underscores the challenges that digital economies pose to traditional frameworks of taxation and regulation.

The discussion around Bezos and Amazon serves to underline the broader themes of techno-feudalism that Varoufakis explores. It reflects concerns about the concentration of power and wealth in the hands of a few digital platform owners, the erosion of traditional market dynamics, and the societal implications of these shifts, including impacts on privacy, labor, and democracy. Through the example of Bezos, Varoufakis calls attention to the urgent need to address these challenges and rethink the governance of digital economies to ensure a more equitable and democratic future.

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Elon Musk

Yanis Varoufakis discusses Elon Musk within the context of the broader shift towards techno-feudalism, highlighting Musk’s ambitions and the strategic moves he has made in the tech world as emblematic of the new forms of power and control emerging in the digital age. Musk, known for his ventures such as Tesla and his interest in acquiring Twitter, serves as a case study for Varoufakis’s arguments about cloud capital and its impact on society.

Varoufakis points out that Elon Musk’s ventures, particularly Tesla, are not just about manufacturing electric vehicles but are deeply integrated with digital technologies and cloud capital. Tesla cars, connected to the cloud, collect vast amounts of data on their users’ behaviors, preferences, and movements. This data collection extends beyond the automotive industry, touching on aspects of digital surveillance and data monetization that are central to techno-feudalism. Musk’s desire to replicate a platform like WeChat, which combines social media, messaging, payments, and other services into a single ecosystem, is highlighted as an attempt to further integrate and control various aspects of digital and physical life.

The discussion around Musk and his interest in platforms like Twitter underscores a broader trend where tech entrepreneurs are not just content creators or service providers but are becoming the new lords of the digital realm. They wield significant power over the digital landscapes they control, much like feudal lords once controlled their lands and the people within them. This comparison is used to illustrate the transformation of capital in the digital age, where ownership of digital platforms and the data they generate becomes a source of unprecedented power and wealth.

Varoufakis’s insights into Musk’s activities reflect concerns over the concentration of power in the hands of a few tech giants and entrepreneurs. This concentration is seen as a fundamental feature of techno-feudalism, where digital platforms become new fiefs, and their owners, the new feudal lords, exert significant influence over the economy, society, and even the political landscape. Musk’s ventures exemplify how technology and capital are merging to create new forms of economic and social organization, challenging traditional notions of capitalism and prompting a reevaluation of our future in a digitally dominated world.

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Yanis Varoufakis discusses Tesla within the context of the transition from traditional capitalism to what he terms “techno-feudalism,” emphasizing the role of companies like Tesla in this new economic landscape. Tesla, led by Elon Musk, is not just an automaker but a tech company that exemplifies the fusion of technology with traditional manufacturing, reshaping economic relationships and production methods. Here’s how Varoufakis frames Tesla in his analysis:

Tesla as a Cloud Company
Varoufakis highlights that Tesla’s value and innovation extend beyond the manufacturing of electric vehicles. Tesla is deeply integrated into the cloud, leveraging data collection, connectivity, and software to enhance its vehicles and customer experience. This integration allows Tesla to continuously update and improve its vehicles after purchase, a stark contrast to traditional automakers whose products remain static post-sale.

Data and Value Extraction
Tesla’s vehicles are equipped with a range of sensors and connectivity features that collect vast amounts of data on driving habits, preferences, and vehicle performance. This data is not just used to refine Tesla’s products but also represents a form of cloud capital. According to Varoufakis, this positions Tesla similarly to big tech firms that extract value through data, distinguishing it from conventional car manufacturers. Tesla’s business model, therefore, embodies the techno-feudalism thesis, where value is increasingly derived from digital and data-driven domains rather than solely physical goods.

The Cloud as Capital
Varoufakis uses Tesla as an example to illustrate his broader point that the cloud has become a form of capital in itself. In this new economy, companies like Tesla that can harness cloud-based data and platforms possess a significant competitive advantage. They are not just selling products but are also engaging in the extraction of data-driven value, a characteristic feature of techno-feudalism.

Impact on Traditional Industry
Tesla’s rise and its approach to vehicle production and data utilization signify a shift in how value is created and captured in the economy. This shift challenges traditional industrial companies, which are more reliant on physical production and less integrated with digital technologies. Varoufakis suggests that companies unable to adapt to this cloud-based model may find themselves at a disadvantage, further accelerating the divide between traditional capitalism and the emerging techno-feudal system.

Tesla and the Future of Work
The discussion around Tesla also touches on broader implications for the future of work and the economy. As companies leverage cloud capital and data, the nature of work, value creation, and economic power structures are transformed. This raises questions about labor rights, data privacy, and the distribution of economic benefits in a world where a few tech giants could dominate much of the economic landscape.

Varoufakis’s mention of Tesla serves to exemplify the broader economic transformation towards techno-feudalism, where the integration of technology, data, and cloud platforms redefines value creation and economic power. Tesla, in this analysis, is not merely an automotive company but a symbol of the shift towards a new economic order dominated by digital technologies and data-driven business models.

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Free Payments (WeChat Pay and Alipay)

In the discussion, Yanis Varoufakis touches upon the concept of “free payments” in the context of digital platforms and technologies, particularly referencing China’s advancements in this area. This concept is part of his broader analysis of techno-feudalism and how certain technological innovations are reshaping economic and social relations.

The Concept of Free Payments

Free payments refer to the ability to conduct financial transactions without incurring traditional banking fees, facilitated by digital platforms that bypass conventional financial institutions. This innovation is significant in the context of big tech’s encroachment into the financial sector, offering a glimpse into how these companies are leveraging technology to create alternative financial ecosystems that challenge the status quo.

Case Study: China’s Digital Currency and Payment Systems

Varoufakis highlights China’s development of digital currency and payment platforms, such as WeChat Pay and Alipay, as prime examples of the free payments phenomenon. These platforms allow users to make transactions directly from their smartphones, seamlessly integrating payment capabilities into a broader digital ecosystem that includes social media, e-commerce, and more. The critical innovation here is the elimination of transaction fees typically charged by banks, thereby democratizing access to digital financial services and enhancing the efficiency of economic transactions.

Implications of Free Payments

1. Disruption of Traditional Banking: The rise of free payment platforms challenges the business model of traditional banks, which rely on transaction fees as a significant revenue source. This shift could lead to a reconfiguration of the banking industry, pushing it toward more innovative and user-friendly services.
2. Centralization of Power: While free payments democratize access to financial services, they also concentrate power in the hands of platform operators, like big tech firms, who control the digital infrastructure facilitating these transactions. This centralization raises concerns about privacy, data security, and the potential for abuse of market dominance.
3. Economic and Social Transformation: The widespread adoption of free payment technologies can transform economies, particularly in developing countries where traditional banking services are limited. By enabling more efficient and inclusive financial transactions, these technologies can spur economic growth and social development.
4. Regulatory Challenges: The emergence of free payment systems poses significant regulatory challenges, as governments and financial authorities grapple with issues of privacy, cybersecurity, financial stability, and competition. The global nature of big tech companies further complicates regulatory efforts, requiring international cooperation to address these challenges effectively.
5. Strategic Geopolitical Considerations: Varoufakis also points out the geopolitical dimensions of free payment systems, particularly in the context of U.S.-China rivalry. The development of digital currencies and payment platforms is part of a broader contest for technological supremacy, with implications for global economic leadership and strategic influence.

Yanis Varoufakis’s discussion of free payments within the framework of techno-feudalism underscores the transformative potential of digital financial technologies. While these innovations offer opportunities for economic empowerment and efficiency, they also raise critical questions about privacy, power concentration, and the future of financial systems in a digitally dominated world. The evolution of free payment systems exemplifies the broader shifts in economic and social relations that Varoufakis associates with the transition to a new era of techno-feudalism.

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Bill Clinton

Yanis Varoufakis mentions Bill Clinton in the context of discussing the evolution of capitalism and the regulatory changes that occurred during Clinton’s presidency, which had significant implications for the financial sector and broader economic landscape. Clinton’s tenure in the 1990s is notable for several policies that contributed to the financialization of the economy and the deregulation of financial markets, aspects that Varoufakis critiques in his analysis of the shift towards techno-feudalism.

Key Points Related to Clinton’s Policies:

1. Deregulation of the Financial Sector: One of the hallmark policies of the Clinton administration was the deregulation of the financial industry. This included the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which removed the separation between commercial banking, investment banking, and insurance services. This deregulation is often cited as a factor that contributed to the financialization of the economy and the increased risk-taking behavior of financial institutions, leading up to the financial crisis of 2007-2008.
2. Promotion of Financialization: The Clinton administration’s policies are seen as facilitating the financialization of the American economy, a process by which financial services became a more dominant sector, influencing economic policy and corporate strategies. This shift towards financialization is characterized by an increased role of financial markets, institutions, and motives in the economy, contributing to the phenomena that Varoufakis identifies as part of the movement towards techno-feudalism.
3. Global Economic Policies: Clinton’s tenure also saw the promotion of globalization and free trade agreements, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). While intended to boost economic growth through increased trade, these policies also had wide-ranging effects on labor markets and the distribution of economic power, themes that are central to Varoufakis’s critique of the current economic order.
4. Impact on Inequality: Varoufakis and other critics argue that the economic policies of the Clinton era, particularly those related to deregulation and financialization, have contributed to rising inequality. They assert that these policies benefited financial elites and the tech oligarchs at the expense of the broader population, exacerbating economic disparities.

In mentioning Clinton, Varoufakis underscores the significance of political and regulatory decisions in shaping the economic landscape, leading to the conditions that he describes as techno-feudalism. Clinton’s presidency is cited as a pivotal period when policies that favored deregulation and financialization were implemented, setting the stage for the economic challenges and transformations that Varoufakis explores in his work.

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Surveillance and privacy

Yanis Varoufakis paints a concerning picture of how digital platforms and cloud capital have fundamentally altered the nature of individual autonomy and privacy. He argues that the rise of big tech companies and their control over digital infrastructure have led to an unprecedented level of surveillance, far surpassing anything imagined in traditional or even dystopian views of state surveillance.

He highlights how these companies collect vast amounts of data on individuals’ behaviors, preferences, and interactions. This data collection is not incidental but central to the business models of these platforms, which rely on harvesting personal information to generate profits through targeted advertising, selling data to third parties, or refining their services to increase user engagement and dependence.

The economist critically examines the relationship between individuals and digital platforms, especially how platforms like Amazon’s Alexa or Google’s search engine are designed to learn from users, only to use that information to influence and modify their behavior in return. This cycle of data collection and behavioral influence challenges the liberal notion of the autonomous individual, suggesting that our choices and preferences are increasingly shaped by algorithms and corporate interests rather than genuine personal freedom.

Varoufakis’s analysis extends to the societal implications of this surveillance economy, questioning the viability of privacy in a world where personal data is the primary currency. He suggests that the very concept of the liberal individual—a cornerstone of democratic societies—is under threat in an era where people’s thoughts, movements, and desires are constantly monitored and commodified by tech giants.

Moreover, he touches on the psychological impact of living under constant surveillance, where individuals must curate their online presence with the awareness that future employers, governments, or malicious actors might scrutinize their digital footprints. This reality erodes the distinction between public and private life, forcing individuals to self-censor or alter their behavior not just in digital spaces but in all aspects of life, due to the omnipresence of digital surveillance.

In essence, Varoufakis warns that techno-feudalism, with its foundation in cloud capital and digital platforms, has ushered in an era where surveillance and the erosion of privacy are not just byproducts but essential mechanisms of power and control. This shift has profound implications for democracy, freedom, and human dignity, challenging us to reconsider the values and structures that underpin our societies in the digital age.

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Yanis Varoufakis expresses a stark and sobering view on Europe’s position in the emerging global order dominated by techno-feudalism. He believes that Europe has become increasingly irrelevant on the world stage, particularly in the face of rising powers like China and the United States, which have developed significant technological and economic dominance through their control of cloud capital and digital platforms. Europe’s lack of comparable digital giants leaves it at a significant disadvantage, making it dependent on American and Chinese tech monopolies for digital infrastructure and services.

Varoufakis points out that Europe does not have its own equivalents to Google, Facebook, Uber, Apple, or Amazon. This absence means that European companies and economies are forced to operate within the digital and economic ecosystems controlled by these foreign giants, effectively rendering Europe a vassal to their techno-feudal empires. This dependency is not just an economic concern but also a geopolitical weakness, as Europe lacks the technological sovereignty to assert itself in the digital age.

The conversation highlights the significant tax contributions—or the lack thereof—made by tech giants in Europe. Amazon’s operations serve as a prime example, with the company making billions in revenue within Europe while paying minimal taxes. This situation underscores the economic disparities that techno-feudalism exacerbates, with wealth and power concentrated in the hands of a few non-European entities, while European states and citizens are left with diminishing returns and influence.

Furthermore, Varoufakis discusses the geopolitical implications of Europe’s diminished role, particularly in the context of rising tensions between the United States and China. He suggests that Europe’s political and economic fragmentation, combined with its technological lag, renders it a secondary player in global affairs. The continent’s inability to present a unified or powerful front in international negotiations or conflicts, such as the situation in Ukraine, exemplifies its declining influence.

Varoufakis’s perspective on Europe is not just an economic critique but also a call to recognize the profound transformations underway in the global order. He argues that Europe’s future is at risk unless it can navigate the challenges of techno-feudalism, reclaim technological sovereignty, and redefine its role in a world where digital platforms and cloud capital are reshaping economies, societies, and geopolitics.




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